Studies & Research

      Sharks’ skin has been extensively studied for decades because of its drag-reduction and antifouling properties. The skin of shark is covered by minute individual tooth-like scales termed dermal denticles, which are ribbed with longitudinal grooves which are aligned in the water flow direction. Compared with the flat surface which served as a control, these surfaces reduce the fluid flow drag in fluid flow by 5% to 10%. A non-smooth shark skin surface with special microstructures is an excellent natural template for a low-drag surface. Below are several studies performed by various researchers and laboratories studying these properties.  

Bechert, D. W., Bartenwerfer, M., Hoppe, G. & Reif, W.-E. 1986 Drag reduction mechanisms derived from shark skin. Presented at 15th Congr. of the Intl Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 7–12 September, London, UK. ICAS-86-1.8.3. AIAA.

Choi, K.-S. 1987 Test of drag reducing riblets on a one-third scale racing yacht. Presented at Turbulent Drag Reduction by Passive Means Conf. 15–17 September, London, UK. Royal Aeronautical Society.

McLean, J. D., George-Falvy, D. N. & Sullivan, P. P. 1987 Flight-test of turbulent skin-friction reduction by riblets. In Turbulent Drag Reduction by Passive Means, Conference, 15–17 September, London, UK. Royal Aeronautical Society.

Neumann, D. & Dinkelacker, A. 1989 Drag reduction by longitudinal riblets on the surface of a streamwise aligned body of revolution. In Drag Reduction in Fluid Flows, 31 July–3 August 1989, Davos, Switzerland (ed. R. H. J. Sellin & R. T. Moses), pp. 93–98. Ellis Horwood.

Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., Hoeven, J. G. Th. van der, Leijdens, H. & Krishna Prasad, K. 1989 Some experiments on riblet surfaces in a towing tank. In Drag Reduction in Fluid Flows, 31 July–3 August 1989, Davos, Switzerland (ed. R. H. J. Sellin & R. T. Moses), pp. 85–92. Ellis Horwood.

Sawyer, W. G. & Winter, K. G. 1987 An investigation of the effect on turbulent skin friction of surfaces with streamwise grooves. In Turbulent Drag Reduction by Passive Means, Conf. 15–17 September, London, UK. Royal Aeronautical Society.

Suzuki, Y. & Kasagi, N. 1994 Turbulent drag reduction mechanism above a riblet surface. AIAA J. 32, 1781–1790.

Walsh, M. J. 1982 Turbulent boundary layer drag reduction using riblets. AIAA Paper 82-0169.

Walsh, M. J. 1983 Riblets as a viscous drag reduction technique. AIAA J. 21, 485–486.

Walsh, M. J. 1990 Riblets. In Viscous Drag Reduction in Boundary Layers. (ed. D. M. Bushnell & J. N. Hefner), Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 123, 203–261. AIAA.

Walsh, M. J., Sellers, W. L. & McGinley, C. B. 1989 Riblet drag reduction at flight conditions. J. Aircraft 26, 570–575.